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Updated ..
Presidents: Complete list of all elected Presidents with vote results, parties and Vice Presidents. Vote on your favorite President
The Presidents

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(1.) “Circumstances have changed. I need to withdraw my concession until the situation is clear”-
Al Gore-
(2.) “Let me make sure I understand. You are calling me back to retract that concession-
George W. Bush
(3.) “If fact I lose Florida, I will immediately concede. But it's not in any way clear I have lost and until it is clear I cannot concede”
Al Gore
(4. ) “Well Mr. Vice President, you do what you have to.”-
George W. Bush
(5.) “You don’t have to get snippy”
Al Gore


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By the Numbers

1789
George Washington
John Adams
John Jay
R. H. Harrison
John Rutledge
John Hancock
George Clinton
Samuel Huntington
John Milton
James Armstrong
Benjamin Lincoln
Edward Telfair
(Not voted)

1792
George Washington
John Adams
George Clinton
Thomas Jefferson
Aaron Burr

1796
John Adams
Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Pinckney
Aaron Burr
Samuel Adams
Oliver Ellsworth
George Clinton
John Jay
James Iredell
George Washington
John Henry
S. Johnston
C. C. Pinckney

1800
Thomas Jefferson
Aaron Burr
John Adams
C. C. Pinckney
John Jay

1804
Thomas Jefferson
C. C. Pinckney

1808
James Madison
C. C. Pinckney
George Clinton
(Not Voted)

1812
James Madison
DeWitt Clinton
(Not voted)

1816
James Monroe
Rufus King
(Not voted)

1820
James Monroe
John Q. Adams
(Not voted)

1824
John Q. Adams }
Andrew Jackson }
Henry Clay }
W. H. Crawford }

1828
Andrew Jackson
John Q. Adams

1832
Andrew Jackson
Henry Clay
William Wirt
John Floyd
(Not voted)

1836
Martin Van Buren
William H. Harrison
Hugh L. White
Daniel Webster
W. P. Mangum

1840
William H. Harrison
Martin Van Buren

1844
James K. Polk
Henry Clay
James G. Birney

1848
Zachary Taylor
Lewis Cass
Martin Van Buren

Parties
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-

Parties
Federalist
Federalist
Dem.-Rep.
-
-

Parties
Federalist
Dem.-Rep.
Federalist
Anti-Federalist
Dem.-Rep.
Federalist
Dem.-Rep.
Ind.-Fed.
Federalist
Federalist
Independent
Ind.-Fed.
Ind.-Fed.

Parties
Dem.-Rep.
Dem.-Rep.
Federalist
Federalist
Federalist

Parties
Dem.-Rep.
Federalist

Parties
Dem.-Rep.
Federalist
Ind.-Rep.
-

Parties
Dem.-Rep.
Fusion
-

Parties
Dem.-Rep.
Federalist
-

Parties
Dem.-Rep.
Ind.-Rep.
-

Parties
No
distinct
party
designations

Parties
Democratic
Nat.-Rep.

Parties
Democratic
Nat. Rep.
Anti-Masonic
Nullifiers
-

Parties
Democratic
Whig }
Whig }
Whig }
Anti-Jackson

Parties
Whig
Democratic

Parties
Democratic
Whig
Liberty

Parties
Whig
Democratic
Free Soil

Popular Vote
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-

Popular Vote
-
-
-
-
-

Popular Vote
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-

Popular Vote
-
-
-
-
-

Popular Vote
-
-

Popular Vote
-
-
-
-

Popular Vote
-
-
-

Popular Vote
-
-
-

Popular Vote
-
-
-

Popular Vote
108,740
153,544
47,136
46,618

Popular Vote
647,286
508,064

Popular Vote
687,502
530,189
___
___
-

Popular Vote
765,483
-
739,795
-
-

Popular Vote
1,274,624
1,127,781

Popular Vote
1,338,464
1,300,097
62,300

Popular Vote
1,360,967
1,222,342
291,263

Electoral Vote
69
34
9
6
6
4
3
2
2
1
1
1
12

Electoral Vote
132
77
50
4
1

Electoral Vote
71
68
59
30
15
11
7
5
3
2
2
2
1

Electoral Vote
73
73
65
64
1

Electoral Vote
162
14

Electoral Vote
122
47
6
1

Electoral Vote
128
89
1

Electoral Vote
183
34
4

Electoral Vote
231
1
3

Electoral Vote
84
99
37
41

Electoral Vote
178
83

Electoral Vote
219
49
7
11
2

Electoral Vote
170
73
26
14
11

Electoral Vote
234
60

Electoral Vote
170
105
---

Electoral Vote
163
127
---

1852
Franklin Pierce
Winfield Scott
John P. Hale

1856
James Buchanan
John C. Fremont
Millard Filmore

1860
Abraham Lincoln
J. C. Breckinridge
Stephen A. Douglas
John Bell

1864
Abraham Lincoln
George B. McClellan
(Not voted)

1868
Ulysses S. Grant
ntHoratio Seymour
(Not voted)

1872
Ulysses S. Grant
Horace Greeley
Charles O'Connor
Thomas A. Hendricks
B. Gratz Brown
Charles J. Jenkins
David Davis
(Not voted)

1876
Rutherford B. Hayes
Samuel J. Tilden
Peter Cooper

1880
James A. Garfield
Winfield S. Hancock
James B. Weaver
Neal Dow

1884
Grover Cleveland
James G. Blaine
Benjamin F. Butler
John P. St. John

1888
Benjamin Harrison
Grover Cleveland
Clinton B. Fisk
Anson J. Streeter

1892
Grover Cleveland
Benjamin Harrison
James B. Weaver
John Bidwell
Simon Wing

1896
William McKinley
William J. Bryan
John M. Palmer
Joshua Levering
Charles H. Matchett
Charles E. Bentley

1900
William McKinley
William J. Bryan
John C. Wooley
Eugene V. Debs
Wharton Barker
Jos. F. Malloney

1904
Theodore Roosevelt
Alton B. Parker
Eugene V. Debs
Silas C. Swallow
Thomas E. Watson
Charles H. Corregan

1908
William H. Taft
William J. Bryan
Eugene V. Debs
Eugene W. Chafin
Thomas L. Hisgen
Thomas E. Watson
August Gilhaus

1912
Woodrow Wilson
Theodore Roosevelt
William H. Taft
Eugene V. Debs
Eugene W. Chafin
Arthur E. Reimer

Parties
Democratic
Whig
Free Soil

Parties
Democratic
Republican
American

Parties
Republican
Democratic (S)
Democratic
Con. Union

Parties
Republican
Democratic
-

Parties
Republican
Democratic
-

Parties
Republican
Democratic
Straight Dem.
Ind.-Dem.
Democratic
Democratic
Democratic
-

Parties
Republican
Democratic
Greenback

Parties
Republican
Democratic
Green.-Labor
Prohibition

Parties
Democratic
Republican
Green.-Labor
Prohibition

Parties
Republican
Democratic
Prohibition
Union Labor

Parties
Democratic
Republican
People's
Prohibition
Soc. Labor

Parties
Republican
Democratic
Nat. Dem.
Prohibition
Soc. Labor
Nationalist

Parties
Republican
Democratic
Prohibition
Socialist
People's
Soc. Labor

Parties
Republican
Democratic
Socialist
Prohibition
People's
Soc. Labor

Parties
Republican
Democratic
Socialist
Prohibition
Independence
People's
Soc. Labor

Parties
Democratic
Progressive
Republican
Socialist
Prohibition
Soc. Labor

Popular Vote
1,601,117
1,385,453
155,825

Popular Vote
1,832,955
1,339,932
871,731

Popular Vote
1,865,593
848,356
1,382,713
592,906

Popular Vote
2,206,938
1,803,787
--------

Popular Vote
3,013,421
2,706,829
-------

Popular Vote
3,596,745
2,843,446
29,489
-----
------
-----
-----
-----

Popular Vote
4,036,572
4,284,020
81,737

Popular Vote
4,453,295
4,414,082
308,578
10,305

Popular Vote
4,879,507
4,850,293
175,370
150,369

Popular Vote
5,447,129
5,537,857
249,506
146,935

Popular Vote
5,555,426
5,182,690
1,029,846
264,133
21,164

Popular Vote
7,102,246
6,492,559
133,148
132,007
36,274
13,969

Popular Vote
7,218,491
6,356,734
208,914
87,814
50,373
39,739

Popular Vote
7,628,461
5,084,223
402,283
258,536
117,183
31,249

Popular Vote
7,675,320
6,412,294
420,793
253,840
82,872
29,100
14,021

Popular Vote
6,296,547
4,118,571
3,486,720
900,672
206,275
28,750

Electoral Vote
254
42
----

Electoral Vote
174
114
8

Electoral Vote
180
72
12
39

Electoral Vote
212
21
81

Electoral Vote
214
80
23

Electoral Vote
286
-
------
42
18
2
1
17

Electoral Vote
185
184
---

Electoral Vote
214
155
----
----

Electoral Vote
219
182
---
---

Electoral Vote
233
168
----
----

Electoral Vote
277
145
22
----
----

Electoral Vote
271
176
----
----
----
----

Electoral Vote
292
155
----
----
----
----

Electoral Vote
336
140
----
----
----
----

Electoral Vote
321
162
----
----
----
----
----

Electoral Vote
435
88
8
---
---
---

1916
Woodrow Wilson
Charles E. Hughes
A. L. Benson
J. Frank Hanly
Arthur E. Reimer

1920
Warren G. Harding
James M. Cox
Eugene V. Debs
P. P. Christensen
Aaron S. Watkins
James E. Ferguson
W. W. Cox

1924
Calvin Coolidge
John W. Davis
Robert M. LaFollette
Herman P. Faris
Frank T. Johns
William Z. Foster
Gilbert O. Nations

1928
Herbert C. Hoover
Alfred E. Smith
Norman Thomas
Verne L. Reynolds
William Z. Foster
William F. Varney

1932
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Herbert C. Hoover
Norman Thomas
William Z. Foster
William D. Upshaw
Verne L. Reynolds
William H. Harvey

1936
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Alfred M. Landon
William Lemke
Norman Thomas
Earl Browder
D. Leigh Colvin
John W. Aiken

1940
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Wendell L. Willkie
Norman Thomas
Roger Q. Babson
Earl Browder
John W. Aiken

1944
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Thomas E. Dewey
Norman Thomas
Claude A. Watson
Edward A. Teichert

1948
Harry S. Truman
Thomas E. Dewey
Strom Thurmond
Henry Wallace
Norman Thomas
Claude A. Watson
Edward A. Teichert
Farrell Dobbs

1952
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Adlai E. Stevenson
Vincent Hallinan
Stuart Hamblen
Eric Hass
Darlington Hoopes
Douglas A. MacArthur
Farrell Dobbs

1956
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Adlai E. Stevenson
T. Coleman Andrews
Eric Hass
Enoch A. Holtwick

1960
John F. Kennedy
Richard M. Nixon
Eric Hass
Rutherford L. Decker
Orval E. Faubus
Farrell Dobbs
Charles L. Sullivan

1964
Lyndon B. Johnson
Barry M. Goldwater
Eric Hass
Parties
Democratic
Republican
Socialist
Prohibition
Soc. Labor

Parties
Republican
Democratic
Socialist
Farmer-Labor
Prohibition
American
Soc. Labor

Parties
Republican
Democratic
Progressive
Prohibition
Soc. Labor
Workers
American

Parties
Republican
Democratic
Socialist
Soc. Labor
Workers
Prohibition

Parties
Democratic
Republican
Socialist
Communist
Prohibition
Soc. Labor
Liberty

Parties
Democratic
Republican
Union
Socialist
Communist
Prohibition
Soc. Labor

Parties
Democratic
Republican
Socialist
Prohibition
Communist
Soc. Labor

Parties
Democratic
Republican
Socialist
Prohibition
Soc. Labor

Parties
Democratic
Republican
States' Rights
Progressive
Socialist
Prohibition
Soc. Labor
Soc. Workers

Parties
Republican
Democratic
Progressive
Prohibition
Soc. Labor
Socialist
Constitution
Soc. Workers

Parties
Republican
Democratic
States' Rights
Soc. Labor
Prohibition

Parties
Democratic
Republican
Soc. Labor
Prohibition
Nat. S. Rights
Soc. Workers
Constitution

Parties
Democratic
Republican
Soc. Labor
Popular Vote
9,127,695
8,533,507
585,113
220,506
13,403

Popular Vote
16,143,407
9,130,328
919,799
265,411
189,408
48,000
31,715

Popular Vote
15,718,211
8,385,283
4,831,289
57,520
36,428
36,386
23,967

Popular Vote
21,391,993
15,016,169
267,835
21,603
21,181
20,106

Popular Vote
22,809,638
15,758,901
881,951
102,785
81,869
33,276
53,425

Popular Vote
27,752,869
16,674,665
882,479
187,720
80,159
37,847
12,777

Popular Vote
27,307,819
22,321,018
99,557
57,812
46,251
14,892

Popular Vote
25,606,585
22,014,745
80,518
74,758
45,336

Popular Vote
24,179,345
21,991,291
1,176,125
1,157,326
139,572
103,900
29,241
13,614

Popular Vote
33,936,234
27,314,992
140,023
72,949
30,267
20,203
17,205
10,312

Popular Vote
35,590,472
26,022,752
111,178
44,450
41,937

Popular Vote
34,226,731
34,108,157
47,522
46,203
44,977
40,165
18,162

Popular Vote
43,129,566
27,178,188
45,219
Electoral Vote
277
254
----
----
----

Electoral Vote
404
127
----
----
----
----
----

Electoral Vote
382
136
13
----
----
----
----

Electoral Vote
444
87
---
---
---
---

Electoral Vote
472
59
----
----
----
----
-

Electoral Vote
523
8
----
----
----
----
----

Electoral Vote
449
82
----
----
----
----

Electoral Vote
432
99
----
----
----

Electoral Vote
303
189
39
----
----
----
----
----

Electoral Vote
442
89
----
----
----
----
----
----

Electoral Vote
457
73
----
----
----

Electoral Vote
303
219
----
----
----
----
----

Electoral Vote
486
52
----
Clifton DeBerry
E. Harold Munn

1968
Richard M. Nixon
Hubert H. Humphrey
George C. Wallace
Henning A. Blomen
Dick Gregory
Fred Halstead
Eldridge Cleaver
Eugene J. McCarthy
E. Harold Munn

1972
Richard Nixon
George McGovern
John Schmitz
Benjamin Spock

1976
Jimmy Carter
Gerald Ford
Eugene McCarthy
Roger MacBride

1980
Ronald Reagan
Jimmy Carter
John Anderson
Ed Clark

1984
Ronald Reagan
Walter Mondale
David Bergland
Lyndon H. LaRouche

1988
George Bush
Michael Dukakis
Ron Paul
Lenora Fulani
David Duke
Eugene McCarthy

1992
Bill Clinton
George Bush
H. Ross Perot
Andre Marrou
James "Bo" Gritz
Lenora Fulani

1996
Bill Clinton
Bob Dole
Ross Perot

2000
George W. Bush
Albert Gore
Ralph Nader
Soc. Workers
Prohibition

Parties
Republican
Democratic
Amer. Ind.
Soc. Labor
-
Soc. Workers
Peace-Freedom Prohibition



Parties
Republican
Democratic
American
People's

Parties
Democratic
Republican
Independent
Libertarian

Parties
Republican
Democratic
Independent
Libertarian

Parties
Republican
Democratic
Libertarian
Independent

Parties
Republican
Democratic
Libertarian
New Alliance
Populist
Consumer

Parties
Democrat
Republican
Independent
Libertarian
Populist/America First
New Alliance

Parties
Democrat
Republican
Independent

Parties
Republican
Democratic
Green

32,720
23,267

Popular Vote
31,785,480
31,275,166
9,906,473
52,588
47,133
41,388
36,563
25,552
15,123

Popular Vote
41,170,000
29,170,000
1,099,482
78,756

Popular Vote
40,831,000
39,148,000
756,691
173,011

Popular Vote
43,904,000
35,484,000
5,720,060
921,299

Popular Vote
54,455,000
37,577,000
228,314
78,807

Popular Vote
48,881,278
41,805,374
431,616
217,200
46,910
30,903

Popular Vote
44,909,889
39,104,545
19,742,267
291,628
107,002
73,708

Popular Vote
47,401,185
39,197,469
8,085,294

Popular Vote
50,456,169
50,996,116
2,695,696


----
----

Electoral Vote
301
191
46
----
----
----
----
----
----

Electoral Vote
520
17
----
----

Electoral Vote
297
240
----
----

Electoral Vote
489
49
----
----

Electoral Vote
525
13
----
----

Electoral Vote
426
111
----
----
----
----

Electoral Vote
370
168
----
----
----
----

Electoral Vote
379
159
----

Electoral Vote
271
266
----

 

The Vice Presidents
1. John Adams (1735-1826). Federalist. Served under George Washington, 1789-97; home state: MA; profession: lawyer.

2. Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826). Democratic-Republican. Served under John Adams, 1797-1801; home state VA; profession: lawyer, planter, public official.

3. Aaron Burr (1756-1836). Democratic-Republican. Served under Thomas Jefferson, 1801-05; home state: NY; profession: public official.

4. George Clinton (1744-1814). Democratic-Republican. Served under Thomas Jefferson, 1805-09, James Madison, 1809-12; home state: NY profession: public official.

5. Elbridge Gerry (1744-1814). Democratic-Republican. Served under James Madison, 1813-14; home state: MA; profession: public official.

6. Daniel D. Tompkins (1774-1825). Democratic-Republican. Served under James Monroe, 1817-25; home state: NY; profession: lawyer and public official.

7. John C. Calhoun (1782-1850). Served as Democratic-Republican under John Quincy Adams, 1825-29; as Democrat under Andrew Jackson, 1829-32; home state: SC; profession: lawyer and public official.

8. Martin Van Buren (1782-1862). Democrat. Served under Andrew Jackson, 1833-37; home state: NY; profession: lawyer and public official.

9. Richard M. Johnson (1780-1850). Democrat. Served under Martin Van Buren, 1837-41; home state: KY; profession: public official.

10. John Tyler (1790-1862). Whig. Served under William H. Harrison, March 4-April 4, 1841; home state: VA; profession: lawyer and public official.

11. George M. Dallas (1792-1864). Democrat. Served under James K. Polk, 1845-49; home state: PA; profession: public official and diplomat.

12. Millard Fillmore (1800-1874). Whig. Served under Zachary Taylor, 1849-50; home state: NY; profession: teacher, lawyer, public official.

13. William R. D. King (1786-1853). Democrat. Served under Franklin Pierce, March 4-April 18, 1853; home state: AL; profession: lawyer, public official, diplomat.

14. John C. Breckinridge (1821-75). Democrat. Served under James Buchanan, 1857-61; home state: KY; profession: lawyer and public official.

15. Hannibal Hamlin (1809-1891). Republican. Served under Abraham Lincoln, 1861-65; home state: ME; profession: lawyer and public official.

16. Andrew Johnson (1808-1875). National Union (Republican). Served under Abraham Lincoln, March 4-April 15, 1865; home state: TN; profession: tailor and public official.

17. Schuyler Colfax (1823-1885). Republican. Served under Ulysses S. Grant, 1869-73; home state: IN; profession: newspaperman and public official.

18. Henry Wilson (1812-1875). Republican. Served under Ulysses S. Grant, 1873-75; home state: MA; profession: factory owner and public official.

19. William A. Wheeler (1819-1887). Republican. Served under Rutherford B. Hayes, 1877-81; home state: NY; profession: business and public official.

20. Chester A. Arthur (1829-1886). Republican. Served under James A. Garfield, March 4-Sept. 20, 1881; home state: NY; profession: lawyer.

21. Thomas A. Hendricks (1819-1885). Democrat. Served under Grover Cleveland, March 4- Nov. 25, 1885; home state: IN; profession: lawyer and public official.
22. Levi P. Morton (1824-1920). Republican. Served under Benjamin Harrison, 1889-93; home state: NY; profession: banker and public official.

23. Adlai E. Stevenson (1835-1914). Democrat. Served under Grover Cleveland, 1893-97; home state: IL; profession: public official.

24. Garret A. Hobart (1844-1899). Republican. Served under William McKinley, 1897-99; home state: NJ; profession: lawyer and public official.

25. Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919). Republican. Served under William McKinley, March 4-Sept. 14, 1901; home state: NY; profession: historian and public official.

26. Charles W. Fairbanks (1852-1918). Republican. Served under Theodore Roosevelt, 1905-09; home state: IN; profession: financier and public official.

27. James S. Sherman (1855-1912). Republican. Served under William Howard Taft, 1909-12; home state: NY; profession: public official.

28. Thomas Marshall (1854-1925). Democrat. Served under Woodrow Wilson, 1913-21; home state: IN; profession: lawyer and public official.

29. Calvin Coolidge (1872-1933). Republican. Served under Warren G. Harding, 1921-23; home state: MA; profession: lawyer and public official.

30. Charles G. Dawes (1865-1951). Republican. Served under Calvin Coolidge, 1925-29; home state: IL; profession: financier and diplomat.

31. Charles Curtis (1860-1936). Republican. Served under Herbert Hoover, 1929-33; home state: KS; profession: lawyer and public official.

32. John N. Garner (1868-1967). Democrat. Served under Franklin D. Roosevelt, 1933-41; home state: TX; profession: public official.

33. Henry A. Wallace (1888-1965). Democrat. Served under Franklin D. Roosevelt, 1941-45; home state: IA; profession: editor and agribusinessman.

34. Harry S. Truman (1884-1972). Democrat. Served under Franklin D. Roosevelt, Jan. 20-April 12, 1945; home state: MO; profession: public official.

35. Alben W. Barkley (1877-1956). Democrat. Served under Harry S. Truman, 1949-53; home state: KY; profession: public official.

36. Richard M. Nixon (1913-1994). Republican. Served under Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1953-61; home state: CA; profession: public official.

37. Lyndon B. Johnson (1908-1973). Democrat. Served under John F. Kennedy, Jan. 20, 1961- Nov. 22, 1963; home state: TX; profession: public official.

38. (1908-1973). Democrat. Served under Lyndon B. Johnson, 1965-69; home state: MN; profession: public official.

39. Spiro T. Agnew (1918- ). Republican. Served under Richard M. Nixon, Jan. 20, 1969-Oct. 10, 1973; home state: MD; profession: public official.

40. Gerald R. Ford (1913- ). Republican. Served under Richard M. Nixon, Dec. 6, 1973- Aug. 9, 1974; home state: MI; profession: public official.

41. Nelson A. Rockefeller (1908-1979). Republican. Served under Gerald R. Ford, Dec. 19, 1974- Jan. 20, 1977; home state: NY; profession: public official.

42. Walter F. Mondale (1928- ). Democrat. Served under Jimmy Carter, 1977-81; home state: MN; profession: public official.

43. George Bush (1924- ). Republican. Served under Ronald Reagan, 1981-89; home state: TX; profession: oilman and public official.

44. J. Danforth Quayle (1947- ). Republican. Served under George Bush, 1989-93; home state: IN; profession: lawyer and public official.

45. Albert A. Gore, Jr. (1948- ). Democrat. Served under Bill Clinton, 1993- ; home state: TN; profession: public official.

Dick Cheney
(1941- ) Republican. Serving under George W. Bush 2000- : Home State Wyoming. profession: Chmn. & CEO of Halliburton Co., a large energy equipment and construction firm based in Dallas and public official.




Who is/was your
favorite president?

George Washington
John Adams
Thomas Jefferson
James Madison
James Monroe
John Q. Adams
Andrew Jackson
Martin Van Buren
William H. Harrison
James K. Polk
Zachary Taylor
Franklin Pierce
James Buchanan
Abraham Lincoln
Ulysses S. Grant
Rutherford B. Hayes
James A. Garfield
Grover Cleveland
Benjamin Harrison
William McKinley
Theodore Roosevelt
William H. Taft
Woodrow Wilson
Warren G. Harding
Calvin Coolidge
Herbert C. Hoover
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Harry S. Truman
Dwight D. Eisenhower
John F. Kennedy
Lyndon B. Johnson
Richard M. Nixon
Jimmy Carter
Ronald Reagan
George Bush
Bill Clinton
George W. Bush





Did you know?

What organization is this? It has a little over 500 employees with the following statistics:
- 29 have been accused of spousal abuse
- 7 have been arrested for fraud
- 19 have been accused of writing bad checks
- 117 have bankrupted at least two businesses
- 3 have been arrested for assault
- 71 cannot get a credit card due to bad credit
- 14 have been arrested on drug-related charges
- 8 have been arrested for shoplifting
- 21 are current defendants in lawsuits
- In 1998 alone, 84 were stopped for drunk driving


Can you guess which organization this is?

Give up?

It's was the 535 members of your United States Congress. The same group that perpetually cranks out hundreds upon hundreds of new laws designed to keep the rest of us in! line.
(The 105th congress)

Look what happens when a President gets elected in a year with a "0"at the end.
1840: William Henry Harrison (died in office)
1860: Abraham Lincoln (assassinated)
1880: James A. Garfield (assassinated)
1900: William McKinley (assassinated)
1920: Warren G. Harding (died in office)
1940: Franklin D. Roosevelt (died in office)
1960: John F. Kennedy (assassinated)
1980: Ronald Reagan (survived assassination attempt)
2000: George W. Bush




President
John F. Lincoln?
Abraham Lincoln was elected to Congress in 1846.
John F. Kennedy was elected to Congress in 1946.

Abraham Lincoln was elected President in 1860.
John F. Kennedy was elected President in 1960.

Both were particularly concerned with civil rights.
Both wives lost their children while living in the White House.

Both Presidents were shot on a Friday.
Both Presidents were shot in the head.
Now it gets really weird.
Lincoln's secretary was named Kennedy.
Kennedy's Secretary was named Lincoln.

Both were assassinated by Southerners.
Both were succeeded by Southerners named Johnson.

Andrew Johnson, who succeeded Lincoln, was born in 1808. Lyndon Johnson,
who succeeded Kennedy, was born in 1908.

John Wilkes Booth, who assassinated Lincoln, was born in 1839. Lee Harvey
Oswald, who assassinated Kennedy, was born in 1939.

Both assassins were known by their three names.
Both names are composed of fifteen letters.
Now hang on to your seat.

Lincoln was shot at the theater named "Ford."
Kennedy was shot in a car called "Lincoln" made by "Ford." Booth and Oswald
were assassinated before their trials.

A week before Lincoln was shot, he was in Monroe, Maryland. A week before
Kennedy was shot, he was with Marilyn Monroe.


Scholar surveys details

The 1948 poll was conducted by historian Arthur M. Schlesinger, Sr. of Harvard University ([1]). The 1962 survey was also conducted by Schlesinger, who surveyed 75 historians; the results of this survey are given in the book The Complete Book of U.S. Presidents by William A. Degregorio. Schlesinger's son Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. conducted another poll in 1996, not currently on the above chart.

The Complete Book of U.S. Presidents also gives the results of the 1982 survey, a poll of 49 historians conducted by the Chicago Tribune. A notable difference from the 1962 Schlesinger poll was the ranking of President Eisenhower, who was ranked #22 in 1962, but was ranked #9 in the 1982 survey.

Andrew Johnson (1865-69) routinely receives poor marks due to his handling of Reconstruction

The Siena Research Institute of Siena College conducted surveys in 1982, 1990, 1994, and 2002. The 1994 survey placed only two Presidents, Franklin Roosevelt and Abraham Lincoln, above 80 points, and placed two Presidents, Andrew Johnson and Warren G. Harding, below 50 points.

The 1996 column shows the results from a poll conducted from 1989 to 1996 by William J. Ridings, Jr. and Stuart B. McIver, and published in the book Rating the Presidents: A Ranking of U.S. leaders, from the Great and Honorable to the Dishonest and Incompetent. More than 719 people took part in the poll, primarily academic historians and political scientists, although some politicians and celebrities also took part. Participants from every state were included, and emphasis was placed upon getting input from female historians and "specialists in African-American studies", as well as a few non-American historians. Poll respondents rated the Presidents in five categories (leadership qualities, accomplishments & crisis management, political skill, appointments, character & integrity), and the results were tabulated to create the overall ranking.

The C-SPAN Survey of Presidential Leadership was a 1999 survey of academic historians. It found that historians consider Abraham Lincoln, George Washington, and Franklin D. Roosevelt the three best presidents by a wide margin and William Henry Harrison, Andrew Johnson, Franklin Pierce, and James Buchanan the worst.

A 2000 survey by The Wall Street Journal was published in Presidential Leadership: Rating the Best and Worst in the White House, and is also available online. The participants consisted of an "ideologically balanced group of 132 prominent professors of history, law, and political science". This poll sought to include an equal number of liberals and conservatives in the survey, as the editors argued that previous polls were dominated by either one group or the other, but never balanced. The editors noted that the results of their poll were "remarkably similar" to the "mostly liberal" 1996 Schlesinger poll, with the main difference being the much higher ranking in the 2000 poll of President Ronald Reagan at #8 and lower rankings for the 1960s presidents Lyndon B. Johnson and John F. Kennedy. Franklin D. Roosevelt's ranking remained in the top three. According to the editors, this poll also included responses from more women, minorities, and young professors than the 1996 Schlesinger poll.

Another presidential poll was conducted by The Wall Street Journal in 2005, with James Lindgren of Northwestern University Law School for the Federalist Society. ([5]) As in the 2000 survey, the editors sought to balance the opinions of liberals and conservatives, adjusting the results "to give Democratic- and Republican-leaning scholars equal weight." Editor James Taranto noted that Democratic-leaning scholars rated George W. Bush the sixth-worst president of all time, while Republican scholars rated him the sixth-best, giving President Bush an overall rating of "average".

Liberal and Conservative raters

The Murray-Blessing 1982 survey asked historians whether they were liberal or conservative on domestic, social and economic issues. The table below shows that the two groups had only small differences in ranking the best and worst presidents.

Rankings by Liberals and Conservatives
Rank Liberals (n=190) Conservatives (N=50)
1 Lincoln Lincoln
2 FD Roosevelt Washington
3 Washington FD Roosevelt
4 Jefferson Jefferson
5 T Roosevelt T Roosevelt
6 Wilson Jackson
7 Jackson Truman
8 Truman Wilson
9 LB Johnson Eisenhower
10 John Adams John Adams
...
30 Coolidge Carter
31 Pierce Nixon
32 Buchanan Pierce
33 An. Johnson An. Johnson
34 Grant Buchanan
35 Nixon Grant
36 Harding Harding

Source: Murray and Blessing p 135

Libertarian Views

While no survey of libertarian historians has appeared, two libertarian economists Vedder and Gallaway created their own rankings by using only the percentage increase in government spending and increase in price index as negative indicators (the lower the better). Slavery was not measured. The postwar presidencies of Andrew Johnson and Grant, Harding, and Monroe rank best.

Popular opinion

Quinnipiac University poll

A Quinnipiac University poll, taken May 23-30, 2006, asked 1,534 registered American voters to pick the best and worst U.S. President of the last 61 years.

"Thinking about the United States Presidents we have had since World War II Ha Harry Truman, Dwight Eisenhower, John Kennedy, Lyndon Johnson, Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford, Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan, George Bush Senior, Bill Clinton, and George W. Bush, which one would you consider the best president?"

  1. Ronald Reagan (28%)
  2. Bill Clinton (25%)
  3. John Kennedy (18%)
  4. Harry Truman (7%)
  5. Dwight Eisenhower (5%)
  6. Jimmy Carter (5%)
  7. Don't Know/No Answer (4%)
  8. George W. Bush (3%)
  9. George H. W. Bush (2%)
  10. Lyndon Johnson (1%)
  11. Richard Nixon (1%)
  12. Gerald Ford (1%)
Ronald Reagan has fared well in recent public opinion polls about Presidential greatness.

"Which of these eleven presidents we have had since World War II would you consider the worst president - Harry Truman, Dwight Eisenhower, John Kennedy, Lyndon Johnson, Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford, Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan, George Bush Senior, Bill Clinton, and George W. Bush?"

  1. George W. Bush (34%)
  2. Richard Nixon (17%)
  3. Bill Clinton (16%)
  4. Jimmy Carter (13%)
  5. Don't Know/No Answer (5%)
  6. Lyndon Johnson (4%)
  7. Ronald Reagan (3%)
  8. George H. W. Bush (3%)
  9. Gerald Ford (2%)
  10. Harry Truman (1%)
  11. John Kennedy (1%)
  12. Dwight Eisenhower (<1%)

Washington College poll

A Washington College poll about presidential greatness, taken 11 February 2005, asked 800 adults nationwide, "Thinking about all the presidents of the United States throughout history to the present, who would you say was America's greatest president?"

  1. Abraham Lincoln (20%)
  2. Ronald Reagan (15%)
  3. Franklin D. Roosevelt (12%)
  4. John F. Kennedy (11%)
  5. Bill Clinton (10%)
  6. Other/Don't Know (9%)
  7. George W. Bush (8%)
  8. George Washington (6%)
  9. Theodore Roosevelt (3%)
  10. Dwight Eisenhower (3%)
  11. Jimmy Carter (2%)
  12. Thomas Jefferson (2%)
  13. Richard Nixon (1%)
  14. John Adams (<1%)
  15. Andrew Jackson (<1%)
  16. Lyndon Johnson (<1%)
FDR is consistently mentioned as one of the greatest Presidents of all time.

Gallup poll

A Gallup poll about presidential greatness, taken 7-10 February 2005, asked 1008 adults nationwide, "Who do you regard as the greatest United States president?"

  1. Ronald Reagan (20%)
  2. Bill Clinton (15%)
  3. Abraham Lincoln (14%)
  4. Franklin D. Roosevelt (12%)
  5. John F. Kennedy (12%)
  6. Other/None/No opinion (5%)
  7. George Washington (5%)
  8. George W. Bush (5%)
  9. Jimmy Carter (3%)
  10. Harry Truman (2%)
  11. Theodore Roosevelt (2%)
  12. Thomas Jefferson (2%)
  13. George H.W. Bush (1%)
  14. Dwight Eisenhower (1%)
  15. Richard Nixon (1%)

ABC poll

An ABC News poll about presidential greatness, taken 16-20 February 2000, asked 1012 adults nationwide, "Who do you think was the greatest American president?"

  1. Abraham Lincoln (19%)
  2. John Kennedy (17%)
  3. Franklin Roosevelt (11%)
  4. No opinion (10%)
  5. Ronald Reagan (9%)
  6. George Washington (8%)
  7. Bill Clinton (7%)
  8. Theodore Roosevelt (4%)
  9. George H.W. Bush (4%)
  10. Thomas Jefferson (3%)
  11. Harry Truman (2%)
  12. Richard Nixon (2%)
  13. Jimmy Carter (1%)
  14. Dwight Eisenhower (1%)



Over 1000 scholars have participated in the surveys. The issue of the validity of the rankings has been of special interest to historians and political scientists, who have tried to specify the relative importance of personality, leadership, issues and partisanship. Quantitative ranking by groups of scholars have been in favor in recent decades, displacing the traditional methods of evaluation by individual writers as typified by Bailey (1966) and most biographers. For a description of each of the polls, see the survey details section below.

Because Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms and is counted as both the 22nd and 24th President, the total number of Presidents in each poll is at least one less than the number of the most recently-serving President in the poll. Because of their short time in office, Presidents William Henry Harrison and James Garfie

#
President Schlesinger 1948 poll rank Schlesinger 1962 poll rank 1982 Murray-Blessing survey of 846 historians Chicago Tribune 1982 poll rank Siena 1982 poll rank Siena 1990 poll rank Siena 1994 poll rank Ridings- McIver 1996 poll rank CSPAN 1999 poll rank Wall Street Journal 2000 poll rank Siena 2002 poll rank Wall Street Journal 2005 poll rank Average
Total Presidents in survey 29 31 36 38 39 40 41 41 41 39 42 40  
1 George Washington 2 2 3 3 4 4 4 3 3 1 4 1 2.83
2 John Adams 9 10 9 14 (tie) 10 14 12 14 16 13 12 13 12.17
3 Thomas Jefferson 5 5 4 5 2 3 5 4 7 4 5 4 4.42
4 James Madison 14 12 14 17 9 8 9 10 18 15 9 17 12.67
5 James Monroe 12 18 15 16 15 11 15 13 14 16 8 16 14.08
6 John Quincy Adams 11 13 16 19 17 16 12 18 19 20 17 25 16.9
7 Andrew Jackson 6 6 7 6 13 9 11 8 13 6 13 10 9
8 Martin Van Buren 15 17 20 18 21 21 22 21 30 23 24 27 21.58
9 William Henry Harrison Ñ Ñ Ñ 38 26 35 28 35 37 Ñ 36 Ñ 33.57
(7 rankings)
37.08
(12 rankings, non-rank=42)
10 John Tyler 22 25 28 29 34 33 34 34 36 34 37 35 31.75
11 James K. Polk 10 8 12 11 12 13 14 11 12 10 11 9 11.08
12 Zachary Taylor 25 24 27 28 29 34 33 29 28 31 34 33 29.58
13 Millard Fillmore 24 26 29 31 32 32 35 36 35 35 38 36 32.41
14 Franklin Pierce 27 28 31 35 35 36 37 37 39 37 39 38 34.92
15 James Buchanan 26 29 33 36 37 38 39 40 41 39 41 40 36.58
16 Abraham Lincoln 1 1 1 1 3 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 1.58
17 Andrew Johnson 19 23 32 32 38 39 40 38 40 36 42 37 34.67
18 Ulysses S. Grant 28 30 35 30 36 37 38 38 33 32 35 29 33.42
19 Rutherford B. Hayes 13 14 22 22 22 23 24 26 25 22 27 24 22
20 James Garfield Ñ Ñ Ñ 33 25 30 27 30 29 Ñ 33 Ñ 29.57
(7 rankings)
34.75
(12 rankings, non-rank=42)
21 Chester A. Arthur 17 21 26 24 24 26 26 32 28 26 30 26 25.5
22, 24 Grover Cleveland 8 11 17 13 18 17 19 17 16 12 20 12 15
23 Benjamin Harrison 21 20 23 25 31 29 28 31 31 27 32 30 27.33
25 William McKinley 18 15 18 10 19 19 18 17 15 14 19 14 16.33
26 Theodore Roosevelt 7 7 5 4 5 5 3 5 4 5 3 5 4.83
27 William Howard Taft 16 16 19 20 20 20 21 24 20 19 21 20 19.67
28 Woodrow Wilson 4 4 6 7 6 6 6 6 6 11 6 11 6.58
29 Warren G. Harding 29 31 36 37 39 40 41 38 38 37 40 39 37.33
30 Calvin Coolidge 23 27 30 27 30 31 36 33 27 25 29 23 28.42
31 Herbert Hoover 20 19 21 21 27 28 29 24 34 29 31 31 26.17
32 Franklin D. Roosevelt 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 3 1 3 2
33 Harry S. Truman Ñ 9 8 8 7 7 7 7 5 7 7 7 7.18
(11 rankings)
34 Dwight D. Eisenhower Ñ 22 11 9 11 12 8 9 9 9 10 8 10.73
(11 rankings)
35 John F. Kennedy Ñ Ñ 13 14 (tie) 8 10 10 15 8 18 14 15 12.5
(10 rankings)
36 Lyndon B. Johnson Ñ Ñ 10 12 14 15 13 12 10 17 15 18 13.6
(10 rankings)
37 Richard Nixon Ñ Ñ 34 34 28 25 23 32 25 33 26 32 29.2
(10 rankings)
38 Gerald R. Ford Ñ Ñ 24 23 23 27 32 27 23 28 28 28 26.3
(10 rankings)
39 Jimmy Carter Ñ Ñ 25 26 33 24 25 19 22 30 25 34 26.3
(10 rankings)
40 Ronald Reagan Ñ Ñ Ñ Ñ 16 22 20 26 11 8 16 6 13.88
(8 rankings)
41 George H. W. Bush Ñ Ñ Ñ Ñ Ñ 18 31 22 20 21 22 21 22.14
(7 rankings)
42 Bill Clinton Ñ Ñ Ñ Ñ Ñ Ñ 16 23 21 24 18 22 20.67
(6 rankings)
43 George W. Bush Ñ Ñ Ñ Ñ Ñ Ñ Ñ Ñ Ñ Ñ 23 19 21
(2 rankings)

ld are sometimes omitted from these polls. Current U.S. president George W. Bush is also absent in some rankings because his term is not yet completed.

Presidents by average scholar rank

Abraham Lincoln is often considered the greatest president for his leadership during the American Civil War and his eloquence in speeches such as the Gettysburg Address.
# President Political Party Average ranking Noted For:
1 Abraham Lincoln Republican 1.58 American Civil War leadership to preserve the Union and abolish slavery, Emancipation Proclamation, Homestead Act, Gettysburg Address, Thirteenth Amendment
2 Franklin D. Roosevelt Democrat 2 Leadership during World War II and Great Depression, fireside chats, New Deal, including SEC, Social Security, unemployment insurance, Fair Labor Standards Act, Federal Open Market Committee to manage the money supply, Civilian Conservation Corps, extensive infrastructure investments through the Works Progress Administration and other agencies, rural electrification, FDIC, Federal Housing Administration, National Labor Relations Act, Good Neighbor policy with Latin America, Lend-Lease, Four Freedoms, Atlantic Charter, Manhattan Project, Japanese American internment, unconditional surrender doctrine, proposed United Nations, overcame Paraplegia due to Poliomyelitis, won presidency four times, Imperial Presidency, G.I. Bill
3 George Washington Federalist-leaning non-partisan 2.83 First President, founding father of the republic, establishment of many precedents through acts such as Judiciary Act of 1789, Residence Act of 1790, Bank Act of 1791, Coinage Act of 1792, Naval Act of 1794, establishment of the United States Cabinet, response towards the Whiskey Rebellion, relinquished power uneventfully after two terms
4 Thomas Jefferson Democratic-Republican 4.42 Set precedent for peaceful transfer of power between rival political parties, Louisiana Purchase, Lewis and Clark Expedition, intellectual leadership for liberty, separation of church and state advocate, states' rights, wrote the Declaration of Independence
5 Theodore Roosevelt Republican 4.83 Charisma, conservationism, trust-busting, Hepburn Act, safe food regulations, "Square Deal," Panama Canal, Great White Fleet, Nobel Peace Prize for negotiation of peace in Russo-Japanese War
6 Woodrow Wilson Democrat 6.58 World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tarriffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize,
7 Harry S. Truman Democrat 7.18 World War II and Cold War leadership, Marshall Plan, NATO, Truman Doctrine, desegregation of armed forces, Fair Deal, ordered the use of an atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Korean War.
8 Andrew Jackson Democrat 9 Enhanced power of presidency, defused Nullification crisis, increased political participation by American citizens, "Jacksonian democracy," eliminated national debt, Bank War, Indian Removal Act, Age of Jackson
9 Dwight D. Eisenhower Republican 10.73 Cold War leadership, interstate highway system, era of peace and moderate economic prosperity, emphasized free markets but kept New Deal reforms, enforced Supreme Court desegregation, World War II Supreme Allied Commander
10 James K. Polk Democrat 11.08 Mexican-American War leadership, acquisition of Mexican territories (California, Texas, etc.) and much of the Oregon Territory
11 John Adams Federalist 12.17 Set precedent for peaceful transfer of power between rival political parties, XYZ Affair, established Department of the Navy, Alien and Sedition Acts, prevented war with France
12 John F. Kennedy Democrat 12.5 Cold War leadership, proposed Civil Rights legislation, defused Cuban Missile Crisis, "Ich bin ein Berliner" speech in West Berlin, philandering, Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, Project Apollo, Peace Corps, New Frontier, early death left impression of unfulfilled promise
13 James Madison Democratic-Republican 12.67 Blamed for mishandling War of 1812, Era of Good Feelings, main architect of United States Constitution
14 Lyndon B. Johnson Democrat 13.6 Vietnam War quagmire, Civil Rights, Voting Rights Act, Great Society: Medicare (United States), Elementary and Secondary Education Act, Higher Education Act of 1965, War on Poverty welfare programs, Head Start, tax cut, booming economy leading to inflation, Wilderness Act, National Endowment for the Arts, National Endowment for the Humanities, Public Broadcasting Act of 1967, Department of Transportation, expanded consumer protection, Model Cities Program, 1965 Immigration Act, clean air/soil/water laws
15 Ronald Reagan Republican 13.88 Cold War leadership, military build-up, Contras, Strategic Defense Initiative, helped peacefully end the Cold War with Mikhail Gorbachev, arms control treaty, advocate of free markets, economic expansion, tax cuts, sought welfare reform (enacted under Clinton), "Great Communicator," increased budget deficits, slow response to AIDS crisis, increased poverty, scandals including Iran-Contra scandal
16 James Monroe Democratic-Republican 14.08 Monroe Doctrine, Acquired Florida, admission of five states to the Union, Missouri Compromise, Rush-Bagot Treaty
17 Grover Cleveland Democrat 15 Creation of both the American Federation of Labor and the Interstate Commerce Commission, violent suppression of strikes
18 William McKinley Republican 16.33 Spanish-American War, Philippine-American War, and the Annexation of Hawaii, imperialism
19 John Quincy Adams National Republican/Whig 16.9 Presided during the end of the Era of Good Feelings, development of the American System
20 William Howard Taft Republican 19.67 Admittance of New Mexico and Arizona, trust-busting, strengthening of Interstate Commerce Commission, belief in world peace (pacifism)
21 Bill Clinton Democrat 20.67 NAFTA, welfare reform, economic expansion, impeachment, balanced federal budget, deregulation of telecommunications industries, Americorps, Don't Ask, Don't Tell, the Defense of Marriage Act, military intervention in Kosovo and Somalia, extended NATO to Eastern European countries, Waco Siege, Oklahoma City Bombing, attempts on health care reform, Brady Bill , Impeachment
22 George W. Bush Republican 21 No Child Left Behind, September 11, 2001 attacks, War on Terrorism, 2001 war in Afghanistan, PATRIOT Act, Iraq War, Medicare prescription drug benefit, mishandling of Hurricane Katrina response, federal budget deficits, Guantanamo Bay detainment camp, Marriage Protection Act, withdrawal from the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty, expansion of executive power (unitary executive theory), NSA warrantless surveillance, Military Commissions Act of 2006
23 Martin Van Buren Democrat 21.58 Panic of 1837, enforcement of Treaty of New Echota led to displacement of Cherokees
24 Rutherford B. Hayes Republican 22 Compromise of 1877 and Desert Land Act of 1877
25 George H. W. Bush Republican 22.14 Gulf War, president during collapse of Soviet Union, economic recession, broke "No New Taxes" pledge, NAFTA trade treaty
26 Chester A. Arthur Republican 25.5 Revitalization of U.S. Navy, civil service reform
27 (tie) Jimmy Carter Democrat 26.3 Camp David Accords, Iranian hostage crisis, stagflation and energy crisis, image of ineffective leadership, appointed Paul Volcker chairman of the Federal Reserve to end inflation, deregulation legislation, sought energy legislation
27 (tie) Gerald Ford Republican 26.3 Lack of charisma, pardoned Richard Nixon, Whip inflation now, Helsinki Accords
29 Herbert Hoover Republican 26.17 Handling of onset of the Great Depression, handling of Bonus Army demonstration, Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act
30 Benjamin Harrison Republican 27.33 Failure to convince country of his leadership capabilities, tariff issue handling, loss of party leader support
31 Calvin Coolidge Republican 28.42 Lack of interest in exerting executive or federal power (regarded as a strength by some); Kellogg-Briand Pact;
32 Richard Nixon Republican 29.2 Vietnam War, Normalization of relations with China, d tenttente, Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty, Clean Water Act, creation of Environmental Protection Agency, wage and price controls, corruption (Watergate scandal, harrassment of opponents via FBI and IRS), resignation to avoid impeachment
33 James A. Garfield Republican 29.57 Brief administration (six months), death prompted the Civil Service Act and modern bureaucracy (limiting the spoils system)
34 Zachary Taylor Whig 29.58 Short term, opposed slavery expansion westward, did not support Compromise
35 John Tyler Whig/none 31.75 Lack of support from any political party, post-presidency service in Confederate House of Representatives
36 Millard Fillmore Whig 32.41 Fugitive Slave Act, lack of leadership during growing sectional divisiveness, Perry expedition and Convention of Kanagawa
37 Ulysses Grant Republican 33.42 Administration (but not Grant himself) corrupt; Civil Rights Act of 1871 (including activities to breakup the Ku Klux Klan Act); failures during Reconstruction, alcoholism
38 William Henry Harrison Whig 33.57 Briefest administration (30 days)
39 Andrew Johnson Democrat/none 34.67 Impeded Reconstruction, vetoed civil rights legislation, impeachment
40 Franklin Pierce Democrat 34.92 Failure to avert to Civil War, Kansas-Nebraska Act, Gadsden Purchase, poor leadership, died from alcoholism
41 James Buchanan Democrat 36.58 Failure to avert Civil War, failed to act during secession crisis, Dred Scott v. Sandford, prone to frequent bouts of depression which affected his leadership, ruined his party
42 Warren G. Harding Republican 37.33 Corrupt and short administration, Teapot Dome Scandal, opposed Wilson's League of Nations, moved America into isolationism as president, presided over beginning of the "Roaring Twenties"